Luther on Government in Psalm 82

When we discuss Martin Luther’s view of civil government, we usually speak of the high regard Luther had for government and its duty to restrain evil and secure justice.  To restrain evil is also how the "first use" of God’s law is often defined.  Restrain evil.  It sounds so reactionary, as if Luther thought of government as a police force and little else.  At least, that’s what our shorthand way of describing Luther’s view on government might lead us to believe.

But Luther’s view on government is much more complex than a simple restraint function.

In his commentary on Psalm 82 (Luther’s Works, Volume 13), Martin Luther describes the virtues of a prince in active – rather than reactive – ways. 

The second virtue of a prince is to help the poor, the orphans, and the widows to justice, and to further their cause. Luther’s Works (13:53)

Not only is a prince to help – a reaction, for sure – but a prince is to further the cause of the poor, the orphans, and the widows.  A paragraph later Luther writes that a prince should make his whole kingdom into a hospital – a place of healing and of preventative medicine, to use today’s terms – a place where the poor are lifted up and others are prevented from falling into poverty.

See now what a hospital such a prince can build! He needs no stone, no wood, no builders; and he need give neither endowment nor income. To endow hospitals and help poor people is, indeed, a precious good work in itself. But when such a hospital becomes so great that a whole land, and especially the really poor people of that land, enjoy it, then it is a general, true, princely, indeed, a heavenly and divine hospital. For only a few enjoy the first kind of hospital, and sometimes they are false knaves masquerading as beggars. But the second kind of hospital comes to the aid only of the really poor, widows, orphans, travelers, and other forlorn folk. Besides, it preserves rich or poor, his living and his goods for everyone, so that he does not have to become a beggar or a poor man. If the law were not kept, no one could keep anything from another, and all would have to become beggars together and be ruined and destroyed. However, there are many who are not beggars and do not become beggars. For them the overlord is providing in this hospital.  Luther’s Works (13:53)

Running throughout this essay is Luther’s trust in the power of laws, of just laws, and of righteous leaders.  In the above-cited section Luther says, "If the law were not kept . . . all would have to become beggars together and be ruined and destroyed."  Later in this section Luther writes, "In a word, after the Gospel or the ministry, there is on earth no better jewel, no greater treasure, nor richer alms, no fairer endowment, no finer possession than a ruler who makes and preserves just laws. Such men are rightly called gods." Luther’s Works (13:54). 

A fair argument can be made on the basis of these passages (and others in Luther’s writings) that Luther advocates for a strong – dare I say socialist? – government that is heavily involved in providing for the welfare of its citizens.  Yet given the sinful nature of humankind and our institutions, and a very mixed historical track record, is Luther here too optimistic about the role government can truly play in providing for the welfare of its citizens?  Is government the answer to our social problems?

I have a small government, even libertarian streak in me (btw, see a wonderful article in Sunday’s Washington Post on the resurgence of Libertarianism).  Yet I’m also disillusioned with government, like many in my generation (see another article by Naomi Wolf in Sunday’s Washington Post about the disillusionment many young people have regarding government and politics).  I’m skeptical of the ability of government to meaningfully address a variety of social issues, including poverty, health care and racism, among many others.   Is my skepticism born out of libertarianism or out of disillusionment with the political process?  Heck – is my libertarianism born out of my disillusionment?  I’m not sure. 

But if I care about my neighbor and the future of my country, I ask myself this question: If not government, what other of society’s institutions are able to have a widespread impact on the welfare of our people?  Surely the church cannot feed the poor (see EXHIBIT B of this recent post), and neither can well-meaning community organizations.  Only the government that has the scope and reach to make meaningful changes in the broken structures of our society.  But can government do it?  Can government make meaningful changes in our broken society?  I doubt it, because our government consists of "We The People," and We The People can be a rather selfish lot.

Naomi Wolf’s piece in Sunday’s Post prescribes a "crash course in democracy" for the politically-disillusioned post-Boomer set.  Perhaps she is right.  Perhaps the generations that never experienced a military draft or a mass political movement – and which grew up in an era of money politics where primaries and conventions and platforms mean little because money is the name of the game – perhaps we need a crash course in the workings and the potential of our democracy.  Perhaps.

But knowing how democracy works is not enough.  We also need a vision.  Like Martin Luther, we must have high expectations for our government and its leaders.  We need to remember that the work of governance is a holy work – a God-given task!  We cannot write it off as a soiled mess of selfish, power-hungry fools.  Luther has set for us a high bar of good governance.  We should hold onto that image of the hospital, and demand of our elected leaders the kind of stewardship and leadership worthy of workers in God’s hospital.

Published by Chris Duckworth

Spouse. Parent. Lutheran Pastor. Veteran. Jedi. Political Junkie. Baseball Fan.

5 thoughts on “Luther on Government in Psalm 82

  1. Excellent Chris. I have a question along the line of Luther and politics. I know I saw somewhere, but can’t remember where and can’t find the piece, but do you know where I can find Luther’s comments on the qualifications of government leaders? It had to do with him preferring a good leader who may not be a believer as opposed to a bad leader who is one. That’s a very rough paraphrase. Thanks.

  2. “Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar’s and render unto God that which is God’s.” I have found no Scripture that turf’s the responsibility of caring for the “orphans and widows” to the state. It is a personal responsibility (see Ezekiel Chapter 18). God does not want a relationship with a state. God wants a relationship with us personally.

    Arming any institution with too much power brings out the worse in mankind. “Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely”. – Lord Acton We can work together voluntarily in the name of Christ to build hospitals, orphanages, etc. You only have to look at the names of hospitals before we secularized. So we as individuals, acting individually and corporately, can serve satisfying one of the two systems of justice God demands which is taking care of the “orphans and widows”. The second system of justice is defined by the Law. This is where we fail accept Jesus has our back.

  3. We find a little more of Luther’s views on worldly government, when he says, “[But] worldly government will make no progress. The people are too wicked, and the lords [rulers] dishonor God’s name and Word continually by the shameful abuse of the godhead. Therefore, he (the Psalmist in Psa. 82), prays for another government and kingdom in which things will be better, where God’s name will be honored, His Word kept and He Himself be served; that is the kingdom of Christ. . . .
    “For Christ practises aright the three divine virtues. . . .He advances God’s Word and the preachers of it; He makes and keeps law for the poor; He protects and rescues the miserable. The service of God in Christendom is justice, peace, righteousness, life, salvation. Of this kingdom of Christ the Gospels, and the Epistles of the apostles, preach and testify.”
    Luther’s Works 13:53, 72.

    Therefore, it seems quite clear that Luther would not have imagined that there ever could have been a perfect state on earth among men and earthly rulers, socially or politically. True godly government would support the church & its work, as some godly rulers & emperors (very few in history) have done. But today’s world is more secular than ever. The true church has always looked for the 2nd Advent of Christ where it can truly expect good, godly order when the new and holy kingdom shall surely be brought in, wherein dwells complete righteousness and holiness, according to the Scriptures. Amen.

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